Relationship of Instructional Time Configuration, Gender and Race on Seventh Grade Social Studies Performance

Ken Vogler, Susan Schramm-Pate, Audrey Allan


This study compared the academic performance of seventh-grade students on a state-mandated social studies accountability test by the instructional time configuration used and explored the relationship among the variables of gender, race and poverty on this performance. Results of 24,919 seventh-grade student social studies test scores from 117 middle schools as well as a survey given to principals of the same 117 middle schools were analyzed. While controlling for poverty, students in schools using a 61-79 minute block all year schedule configuration earned significantly higher test scores than students using any other schedule configuration.

Additionally, White students scored significantly higher on the test than Hispanic students, and Hispanic students scored significantly higher on the test than Black students regardless of the instructional time configuration used.


social studies, instructional time, middle level education, scheduling, testing

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