The effect of analogy variations on academic writing: How Indonesian EFL students perform with different cognitive styles

Sujito sujito, Teguh Budiharso, Imroatus Solikhah, Wildan Mahir Mutaqin


This study examines the effects of applying two different forms of analogy, namely written and oral analogy, while also considering learners’ cognitive styles, on students learning outcomes for a research course in English as a Foreign Language. The cognitive style was used in this study as a moderator variable. This study used an experimental design with a 2x3 factorial design. Two classes of slower learners each comprised 30 students, who were assigned into three smaller groups according to their cognitive styles (i.e. field-independent, neutral, and field-dependent cognitive styles). The six groups were delivered teaching over four meetings. ANOVA was used to analyse the data and test the hypotheses. The results show that subjects given oral analogy achieved better learning outcomes than those who received written analogy. In addition, subjects with the field-independent cognitive style exhibited greater learning achievement that those with the neutral and field-dependent cognitive styles. There was no significant interaction between the different analogy types and subjects’ cognitive styles in the results of the research course.


analogy variation, cognitive style, slow learners

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