The Socialization of International Students in American Society and its Education System: A Comprehensive Literature Review

Baurzhan Bokayev


This article presents a systematic review of the socialization and adjustment challenges experienced by international students at US campuses and society. The study aims to explore difficulties, opportunities, and strategies in the social integration of international students, shedding light on the factors influencing their adjustment and overall well-being. Based on a wide range of scholarly empirical works, this study applies a systematic literature review approach based on Scopus and Web of Science online databases. It incorporates peer-reviewed and indexed research on the sociocultural integration of international students in the United States, published between 2004 -2024.  The results highlight the significance of acculturation, loneliness, and social isolation among international students caused by language barriers and cultural differences. While language and cultural obstacles are common concerns for East Asian students, discrimination and social isolation problems are more likely to dominate among Saudi Arabian, African, and Indian students. The analysis also indicates a lack of studies exploring the international students’ communication challenges with faculty members and their abilities to navigate US social and racial structures. The findings emphasize enhancing mental health and counseling services at US campuses. This research could contribute to expanding an understanding of social integration and adjustment challenges among international students and offer potential strategies and interventions related to this process.


American education system; American society; international students; literature review; socialization; USA

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