The Social Responsibility of a Scientist: the Philosophical Aspect of Contemporary Discussions

Natalya Saenko, Olga Voronkova, Marina Volk, Olga Voroshilova

Abstract


The article is devoted to the analysis of the modern state of ethics of science. The question is raised regarding the possibility and problems of the interference of ethics in scientific rationality. From a philosophical position, preliminary answers are given to the following questions: How is it possible to incorporate ethics into the scientific mind? Who is responsible for the destructive impact of scientific discoveries and technical inventions: a scientist or a consumer of technology? How to organize and establish ethical control over experimental science? What ethics can fruitfully interact with technological rationality? The necessity of the essential transformations of modern ethics of science is stated in connection with the global changes in the "social-natural" correlation, the effects of scientific discoveries and technologies on human nature. The solution to these problems in the philosophy of science of the past few decades is reviewed. The opposition of “interference - non-interference” ethical criteria in the goal-setting of scientific activity is analyzed. In addition to the well-known concepts of Kuhn, Lakatos, Feyerabend, the attention of the authors of the article dwells on the modern ideas of Hans Jonas, who argues that the responsibility of a man of science today becomes truly universal. Jonas justifies the need for a new ethic by the fact that humanity stands on the verge of death, being unable to control its own power over nature and its own nature. The ethics of science of Jonas is revealed in the categories of being and nothingness, of responsibility and fear, it implies first of all responsibility for the existence of humanity and the fear of its non-existence. A preliminary recommendation is given on the consolidation of the scientific community, commercial structures, and political forces, on the basis of which it is possible to form effective, modern, and existing ethical requirements for the responsibility of a scientist and science as such.


Keywords


philosophy of science; ethics of science; ethos of science; social institute of science; responsibility of a scientist; ethics of responsibility

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